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AIS is broken down into three classes based on phenotype: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS).
The first six grades of the scale, grades 1 through 6, are differentiated by the degree of genital masculinization; grade 1 is indicated when the external genitalia is fully masculinized, grade 6 is indicated when the external genitalia is fully feminized, and grades 2 through 5 quantify four degrees of decreasingly masculinized genitalia that lie in the interim.
Differences between the theoretical and experimental trends led to refinement of the reaction profile, that is C–C bond formation as a second decisive parameter.
According to the researchers, the predictive ability of the approach is a great advantage to the development of new reactions.
Genetic females (46, XX karyotype) have two X chromosomes, thus have two AR genes.
However, given the scarcity of fertile AIS men and low incidence of AR mutation, the chances of this occurrence are small.
The phenotype of such an individual is a matter of speculation; as of 2010, no such documented case has been published.
About 30% of the time, the AR mutation is a spontaneous result, and is not inherited.
Some individuals with CAIS or PAIS do not have any AR mutations despite clinical, hormonal, and histological features sufficient to warrant an AIS diagnosis; up to 5% of women with CAIS do not have an AR mutation, In another patient, CAIS was the result of a deficit in the transmission of a transactivating signal from the N-terminal region of the normal androgen receptor to the basal transcription machinery of the cell.
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